Publicaciones de Begoña Jiménez Luque

1 a 20 de 97
Cerro-Gálvez E, Roscales J.L, Jiménez B., Sala M.M, Dachs J., Vila-Costa M
Water Research, vol. 171 (2020)
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Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) acids are ubiquitous in the oceans, including remote regions, and are toxic to fish and mammals. The impact to the lowest trophic levels of the food web, however, remains unknown. We challenged natural bacterial communities inhabiting Antarctic coastal waters (Deception Island) with PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging from 2 ng/L to 600 ng/L that selected for tolerant taxa. After 48 h, concentrations of PFOS decreased by more than 50\% and sulfur metabolism-related transcripts were significantly enriched in the treatments suggesting desulfurization of PFOS. Conversely, no significant differences were found between initial and final PFOA concentrations. Gammaproteobacteria and Roseobacter, two abundant groups of marine bacteria, increased their relative activity after 24 h of incubation, whereas Flavobacteriia became the main contributor in the treatments after 6 days. Community activities (extracellular enzyme activity and absolute number of transcripts) were higher in the treatments than in the controls, while bacterial abundances were lower in the treatments, suggesting a selection of PFOS and PFOA tolerant community in the exposed treatments. Our results show a direct effect of PFOS and PFOA exposure on the composition and functionality of natural Antarctic marine microbial communities. While no evidence of defluorination of PFOS or PFOA was detected, probable desulfurization of PFOS depicts a direct link with the sulfur biogeochemistry of the ocean. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
Mukhopadhyay M, Sampath S, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Jiménez B., Chakraborty P.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health (2020)
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Adyar and Cooum, the two rivers intersecting Chennai city, are exposed to serious pollution due to the release of large quantities of dumped waste, untreated wastewater and sewage. Sediments can act as repository for emerging organic contaminants. Hence, we have monitored the occurrence and risk associated with plasticizers [six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bis(2-ethyl hexyl adipate) (DEHA)] and bisphenol A (BPA) in surface riverine sediments of Adyar and Cooum rivers from residential/commercial, industrial and electronic waste recycling sites. Σ7plasticizers (PAEs + DEHA) in the Adyar riverine sediment (ARS) and Cooum riverine sediment (CRS) varied between 51.82–1796 and 28.13–856 ng/g, respectively. More than three-fourth of Σ7plasticizers came from bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in accordance with the high production and usage of this compound. BPA varied between 10.70–2026 and 7.58–1398 ng/g in ARS and CRS, respectively. Average concentrations of plasticizers and BPA were four times higher in electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites when compared with industrial and residential/commercial sites. BPA and DEHP showed a strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.7; p < 0.01) in the e-waste sites thereby indicating common source types. Sites present at close proximity to raw sewage pumping stations contributed to 70\% of the total BPA observed in this study. For the derived pore water concentration of plasticizers and BPA, the ecotoxicological risk has been found to be higher in ARS over CRS. However, sediment concentrations in all the sites of ARS and CRS were much below the recommended serious risk concentration for human (SRChuman) and serious risk concentration for ecotoxicological (SRCeco). © 2020, Springer Nature B.V.
Capanni F, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Marsili L, Fossi M.C, Jiménez B.
Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 156 (2020)
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Bio-accumulation of high levels of persistent organic pollutants represent a serious conservation concern for Mediterranean marine odontocetes. In this study, blubber samples from 10 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Italian coasts during 2015–2016 were analyzed. All specimens showed dl-PCBs > PBDEs ≫ PCDD/Fs. Median concentrations were 1820 ng/g l.w., 456 ng/g l.w. and 23.9 pg/g l.w., respectively. dl-PCBs accounted for 93.3\% of total TEQs. PBDE concentrations suggest that the Mediterranean basin may be considered a hotspot for organobromine compounds. OCDD did not represent the greatest contributor to PCDD/Fs profile, most likely due to a change in dioxin environmental sources in the last two-three decades. Despite international regulations, the present study emphasized that POP exposure levels in Mediterranean striped dolphins have not declined significantly in recent years. Toxicological and risk assessment studies on this sentinel species may provide an early indication of potential adverse health effects on Mediterranean ecosystems. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
González-Gaya B, Martínez-Varela A, Vila-Costa M, Casal P, Cerro-Gálvez E, Berrojalbiz N, Lundin D, Vidal M, Mompeán C, Bode A, Jiménez B., Dachs J.
Nature Geoscience, vol. 12, nº 2, pags. 119 - 125 (2019)
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Atmospheric deposition of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons accounts for an important input of organic matter to the surface ocean. Nevertheless, the biogeochemical cycling and sinks of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the ocean remain largely uncharacterized. Here we present measurements of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plankton and seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans, as well an assessment of their microbial degradation genes. Concentrations of the more hydrophobic compounds decreased when the plankton biomass was higher, consistent with the relevance of the biological pump. The mass balance for the global oceans showed that the settling fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons in the water column were two orders of magnitude lower than the atmospheric deposition fluxes. This imbalance was high for low molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes, highly abundant in the dissolved phase. Parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were depleted to a higher degree than alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the degradation genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be ubiquitous in oceanic metagenomes. These observations point to a key role of biodegradation in depleting the bioavailable dissolved hydrocarbons and to the microbial degradation of atmospheric inputs of organic matter as a relevant process for the marine carbon cycle. © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
Bartalini A, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Marsili L, Mazzariol S, Fossi M.C, Jiménez B.
Science of the Total Environment, vol. 653, pags. 1417 - 1425 (2019)
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Numerous studies to date have reported concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in different marine mammal species worldwide. Yet data on sperm whales are scarce from rich and unique biodiverse areas such as the Mediterranean Sea. This work aimed to assess levels of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in blubber of sperm whales stranded along the Italian coast between 2008 and 2016. POP mean concentrations (dl-PCBs: 6410 ng/g l.w.; PBDEs: 612 ng/g l.w.; PCDD/Fs: 57.8 pg/g l.w.) were mostly in line with what has been previously reported on the same species in the Mediterranean environment and tended to be higher than those reported from other geographical regions. The relative abundance followed the order dl-PCBs > PBDEs ≫ PCDD/Fs. Interestingly, the non-ortho dl-PCB pattern (126 > 169 > 77) was similar to that described in other studies worldwide and different from what is described in its main prey. This could be linked to particular metabolic activities in sperm whales against these highly toxic contaminants. Total TEQs ranged from 275 to 987 pg/g l.w. and showed the pattern Σnon-ortho-dl-PCBs > Σortho-dl-PCBs > PCDDs > PCDFs, with PCBs’ contribution about 96\%. These findings highlight the high abundance of PCBs still found in the Mediterranean environment despite having been banned for decades. All sperm whales analyzed in this study surpassed the threshold of 210 pg WHO-TEQ/g l.w. proposed as starting point of immunosuppression in harbour seals; a level of contamination that may have contributed to an impairment of their immune system. © 2018
Roscales J.L, Vicente A, Ryan P.G, González-Solís J., Jiménez B.
Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 53, nº 16, pags. 9855 - 9865 (2019)
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In this study, we evaluate the main factors driving the exposure of Southern Ocean seabirds to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) across a wide geographic range. Five perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4-12), 10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C4-13), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were analyzed in plasma (n = 128) from eight species, including penguins, giant petrels, skuas, albatrosses, and shearwaters, breeding at four sites in the Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, and adjacent cool-temperate regions. Mean σPFAS concentrations ranged from 0.53 to 53 ng/g wet weight from black-browed albatross to giant petrels, respectively. As expected due to biomagnification, greater concentrations of most PFASs were found in species near the top of marine food webs such as giant petrels. However, our results suggest that other factors, i.e., metabolic capabilities and spatial movements, can mask interspecies differences in PFASs, especially PFCAs, expected from trophic structure. For instance, trans-equatorial migratory seabirds exhibited PFAS levels and profiles that are consistent with northern hemisphere exposure, reflecting their potential biovector role in the global transport of these pollutants. Among resident species, greater concentrations of PFASs, especially long-chain PFCAs, were found in seabirds breeding or foraging north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) than in those restricted to Antarctic/sub-Antarctic distributions. Moreover, composition profiles of PFAS in Antarctic seabirds agree well with those expected from long-range transport. Our results confirm the importance of the ACC in protecting Antarctic food webs from water-phase-transported PFASs. © 2019 American Chemical Society.
Casal P, Casas G, Vila-Costa M, Cabrerizo A, Pizarro M, Jiménez B., Dachs J.
Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 53, nº 15, pags. 8872 - 8882 (2019)
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Many legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been reported in polar regions, and act as sentinels of global pollution. Maritime Antarctica is recipient of abundant snow precipitation. Snow scavenges air pollutants, and after snow melting, it can induce an unquantified and poorly understood amplification of concentrations of POPs. Air, snow, the fugacity in soils and snow, seawater and plankton were sampled concurrently from late spring to late summer at Livingston Island (Antarctica). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) concentrations in snow and air were close to equilibrium. POPs in soils showed concentrations close to soil-air equilibrium or net volatilization depending on chemical volatility. Seawater-air fugacity ratios were highly correlated with the product of the snow-air partition coefficient and the Henry's law constant (KSA H'), a measure of snow amplification of fugacity. Therefore, coastal seawater mirrored the PCB congener profile and increased concentrations in snowmelt due to snowpack releasing POPs to seawater. The influence of snowpack and glacier inputs was further evidenced by the correlation between net volatilization fluxes of PCBs and seawater salinity. A meta-analysis of KSA, estimated as the ratio of POP concentrations in snow and air from previously reported simultaneous field measurements, showed that snow amplification is relevant for diverse families of POPs, independent of their volatility. We claim that the potential impact of atmospheric pollution on aquatic ecosystems has been under-predicted by only considering air-water partitioning, as snow amplification influences, and may even control, the POP occurrence in cold environments. © 2019 American Chemical Society.
González-Gaya B, Casal P, Jurado E, Dachs J., Jiménez B.
Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts, vol. 21, nº 11, pags. 1957 - 1969 (2019)
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The ubiquitous occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the open ocean has been previously documented, but their vertical transport and oceanic sinks have not been comprehensively characterized and quantified at the oceanic scale. During the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation expedition, 21 PFAS were measured at the surface and at the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. In this work, we report an extended data set of PFAS dissolved phase concentrations at the DCM. ∑PFAS at the DCM varied from 130 to 11000 pg L-1, with a global average value of 500 pg L-1. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) abundance contributed 39\% of ∑PFAS, followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA, 17\%), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA, 12\%). The relative contribution of the remaining compounds was below 10\%, with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) contributing only 5\% to PFAS measured at the DCM. Estimates of vertical diffusivity, derived from microstructure turbulence observations in the upper (<300 m) water column, allowed the derivation of PFAS eddy diffusive fluxes from concurrent field measurements of eddy diffusivity and PFAS concentrations. The PFAS concentrations at the DCM predicted from an eddy diffusivity model were lower than field-measured concentrations, suggesting a relevant role of other vertical transport mechanisms. Settling fluxes of organic matter bound PFAS (biological pump), oceanic circulation and potential, yet un-reported, biological transformations are discussed. © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Muñoz-Arnanz J, Chirife A.D, Galletti Vernazzani B, Cabrera E, Sironi M, Millán J, Attard C.R.M, Jiménez B.
Science of the Total Environment, vol. 650, pags. 1521 - 1528 (2019)
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed for the first time in blue whales from the South Pacific Ocean. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites (DDTs), were determined in 40 blubber samples from 36 free-ranging individuals and one stranded, dead animal along the coast of southern Chile between 2011 and 2013. PCBs were the most abundant pollutants (2.97–975 ng/g l.w.), followed by DDTs (3.50–537 ng/g l.w.), HCB (nd–77.5 ng/g l.w.) and PBDEs (nd–33.4 ng/g l.w). There was evidence of differences between sexes, with lower loads in females potentially due to pollutants passing to calves. POP concentrations were higher in specimens sampled in 2013; yet, between-year differences were only statistically significant for HCB and PBDEs. Lower chlorinated (penta > tetra > tri) and brominated (tetra > tri) congeners were the most prevalent among PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, mostly in agreement with findings previously reported in blue and other baleen whales. The present study provides evidence of lower levels of contamination by POPs in eastern South Pacific blue whales in comparison to those reported for the Northern Hemisphere. © 2018
Marsili L, Jiménez B., Borrell A.
Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology: Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Population Health, pags. 185 - 212 (2018)
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The main aim of this chapter is to document the contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in cetaceans living in the Mediterranean Sea, which is a hotspot area for both its biodiversity and its pollution. In fact, the Mediterranean Sea is particularly distressed by environmental contamination because of its half-closed basin geomorphology and its high coastal anthropization. Seven of the eight common cetacean species in the Mediterranean Sea are odontocetes and, as such, are at the top of the trophic chain. For this reason and because of physiologic characteristics that have allowed them to live a completely aquatic life, such as thick adipose tissue, cetaceans accumulate high levels of lipophilic environmental contaminants (i.e., POPs). The only mysticete species, the long-living fin whale, is the largest filter feeder in the Mediterranean Sea and is highly contaminated by small particles, such as microplastics, which are abundant in the basin and also act as vectors of POPs. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muñoz-Arnanz J, Roscales J.L, Vicente A, Ros M, Barrios L, Morales L, Abad E, Jiménez B.
Science of the Total Environment, vol. 634, pags. 1669 - 1679 (2018)
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Time series (2008–2015) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in ambient air from the Spanish Monitoring Program were analyzed. A total of 321 samples were collected seasonally each year in 5 urban and 7 background sites by means of passive air sampling. Air concentrations were higher at urban than background sites (urban vs. background concentration ranges): PCDD/Fs (26.9–1010 vs. 20.0–357 fg/m3), non-ortho PCBs (0.113–3.14 vs. 0.042–2.00 pg/m3) and mono-ortho PCBs (0.644–41.3 vs. 0.500–32.8 pg/m3). Results showed significant decreases from 2009 for non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/Fs as well as for WHO2006-TEQs. These declines were sharper, and sometimes only significant, in urban places resulting in converging levels at urban and background sites for these pollutants at the end of the study period. In contrast, mono-ortho PCBs did not show any significant variation but a steady flat temporal behavior in their concentrations, suggesting the existence of different sources between mono-ortho and non-ortho PCBs. Seasonality was observed for air burdens of all these POPs. PCDD/Fs were mostly measured at higher concentrations in colder than in hot seasons, and the opposite was true for dl-PCBs. Seasonal variations for PCDD/Fs appeared to be related to changes in their sources (e.g. domestic heating, open burning) rather than to temperature per se. In contrast, environmental temperature dependent factors (e.g. increased partitioning into the gas phase) drove seasonal variations in dl-PCBs instead of seasonal changes in their sources. Regarding spatial patterns, significant greater levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were generally found in cities compared to background areas, pointing out the role of densely populated areas as sources for these pollutants in Spain. As proven by our results, long-term monitoring activities are essential to assess and understand temporal behaviors for these POPs, as well as to evaluate the achievement of Stockholm Convention objectives. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
Roscales J.L, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Ros M, Vicente A, Barrios L, Jiménez B.
Science of the Total Environment, vol. 634, pags. 1657 - 1668 (2018)
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The Stockholm Convention (SC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) calls for the Parties’ effectiveness evaluation of those measures taken to meet the reduction and eventual elimination of POPs from the environment. With that goal, air concentrations of different POP families have been measured uninterruptedly since 2008 under the Spanish Monitoring Program (SMP) by means of passive air sampling. This work focuses on data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined in a total of 321 samples collected seasonally each year in 5 urban and 7 background sites. Neither significant temporal trends nor significant seasonal variations for total PBDE air burdens were detected. In contrast, significant variations were found among PBDE congeners. Those related to the octa-PBDE formulation significantly decreased in the study period. However, PBDEs related to the penta-formulation showed steady concentrations while PBDE-209, the congener found at the greatest levels, showed increasing or steady levels in most sampling sites. Seasonal variations were also markedly different among congeners. Concentrations of the lightest PBDEs (tri- to penta-substituted) were highly influenced by ambient temperature (T), showing maximum values in summer probably due to higher volatilization rates compared to those of heavier PBDEs. Contrarily, no clear seasonal trends were found for hexa- to deca-PBDEs, which were negatively related to precipitation; thereby, indicating an efficient atmospheric wash out by wet deposition episodes. Regarding spatial patterns, overall significant greater PBDE levels were found in cities compared to background areas, pointing out the role of highly populated areas as sources for these pollutants in Spain. Yet and especially in the case of PBDE-209, our results suggested the presence of significant unknown sources of PBDEs in some background sites. Further monitoring efforts are needed to assess potential unknown sources in the sampling network as well as to ensure temporal trends of these pollutants in Spain. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
van Drooge B.L, Fontal M, Fernández P, Fernández M.A, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Jiménez B., Grimalt J.O.
Atmospheric Environment, vol. 188, pags. 71 - 81 (2018)
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Atmospheric PM1 has an impact on health and the environment, and is highly variable. PM1 filter samples were collected in urban roof and street sites in two Mediterranean cities in Europe (Barcelona and Madrid) to study the spatial and temporal trends of primary and secondary organic tracer compounds. Both cities are exposed to modern urban emission sources with intensive traffic in their centers. Moreover, their geographical situation in the Mediterranean region favors photo-chemical reactions and accumulation of secondary aerosols, due to sunny anti-cyclonic weather conditions. Barcelona is located along the coast with high relative humidity and an active sea-mountain breeze system, while the relative humidity in Madrid is low in summer, due to its location in the center of the Iberian Peninsula. These differences may influence the accumulation of primary air pollutants and the formation of secondary aerosols. In street site samples, the levels of primary organics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes and nicotine, were about two times higher than those collected simultaneously at roof sites. Primary emitted levoglucosan and isomers from biomass burning were observed in higher concentrations in winter in both urban areas, but without significant difference between the road and roof sites samples, indicating regional transport of biomass smoke to the cities. Similar roof and street site sample concentrations were also observed for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compounds, i.e. dicarboxylic acids and oxidation products of isoprene and α-pinene. The SOA compound concentrations were ten times higher in summer compared to winter samples, emphasizing the importance of SOA formation processes in summer. More evidence was obtained that linked the presence of cis-pinonic acid in the filter samples to new particle formation during nucleation. The urban organic PM1 is dominated by SOA, while the primary organic aerosol (POA) tracer compounds from combustion sources, including traffic and biomass burning, dominates in winter. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Casal P, Cabrerizo A, Vila-Costa M, Pizarro M, Jiménez B., Dachs J.
Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 52, nº 21, pags. 12327 - 12337 (2018)
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The atmosphere-land-ocean dynamics of semivolatile organic compounds in polar regions is poorly understood, also for the abundant and ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We report the concentrations and fluxes of PAHs in a polar coastal ecosystem (Livingston Island, Antarctica). From late spring (December 2014) to late summer (February 2015), we sampled air, snow, coastal seawater, plankton, and the fugacity in soils and snow. The concentrations of PAHs in seawater were low but increased during the austral summer. The PAH concentrations in snow were significantly higher than in coastal seawater. Soil-air fugacity ratios showed a net volatilization of PAH when soils were covered with lichens, and close to air-soil equilibrium for bare soils. Concentrations in surface snow were also close to equilibrium with atmospheric PAHs. Conversely, there was a net diffusive deposition of PAHs to coastal seawater during late spring, but a net volatilization from seawater during late summer. Volatilization fluxes were correlated with seawater temperature and salinity, consistent with a key role of snowmelt to the fluxes and dissolved phase concentrations during the austral summer. The comprehensive assessment provided here shows that the fugacity amplification in snow is transferred to soils and coastal seawater supporting PAH concentrations and fluxes. Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society.
Casal P, González-Gaya B, Zhang Y, Reardon A.J.F, Martin J.W, Jiménez B., Dachs J.
Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 51, nº 5, pags. 2766 - 2775 (2017)
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The bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in plankton has previously been evaluated only in freshwater and regional seas, but not for the large oligotrophic global oceans. Plankton samples from the tropical and subtropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans were collected during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation expedition, and analyzed for 14 ionizable PFASs, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and their respective linear and branched isomers. PFOA and PFOS concentrations in plankton ranged from 0.1 to 43 ng g dw -1 and from 0.5 to 6.7 ng g dw -1 , respectively. The relative abundance of branched PFOA in the northern hemisphere was correlated with distance to North America, consistent with the historical production and coherent with previously reported patterns in seawater. The plankton samples showing the highest PFOS concentrations also presented the largest relative abundances of branched PFOS, suggesting a selective cycling/fractionation of branched PFOS in the surface ocean mediated by plankton. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for plankton were calculated for six PFASs, including short chain PFASs. PFASs Log BAFs (wet weight) ranged from 2.6 ± 0.8 for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), to 4.4 ± 0.6 for perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA). The vertical transport of PFASs due to the settling of organic matter bound PFAS (biological pump) was estimated from an organic matter settling fluxes climatology and the PFAS concentrations in plankton. The global average sinking fluxes were 0.8 ± 1.3 ng m -2 d -1 for PFOA, and 1.1 ± 2.1 ng m -2 d -1 for PFOS. The residence times of PFAS in the surface ocean, assuming the biological pump as the unique sink, showed a wide range of variability, from few years to millennia, depending on the sampling site and individual compound. Further process-based studies are needed to constrain the oceanic sink of PFAS. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
Fossi M.C, Baini M, Panti C, Galli M, Jiménez B., Muñoz-Arnanz J, Marsili L, Finoia M.G, Ramírez-Macías D.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 199, pags. 48 - 58 (2017)
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The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is an endangered species that may be exposed to micro- and macro-plastic ingestion as a result of their filter-feeding activity, particularly on the sea surface. In this pilot project we perform the first ecotoxicological investigation on whale sharks sampled in the Gulf of California exploring the potential interaction of this species with plastic debris (macro-, micro-plastics and related sorbed contaminants). Due to the difficulty in obtaining stranded specimens of this endangered species, an indirect approach, by skin biopsies was used for the evaluation of the whale shark ecotoxicological status. The levels of organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) plastic additives, and related biomarkers responses (CYP1A) were investigated for the first time in the whale shark. Twelve whale shark skin biopsy samples were collected in January 2014 in La Paz Bay (BCS, Mexico) and a preliminary investigation on microplastic concentration and polymer composition was also carried out in seawater samples from the same area. The average abundance pattern for the target contaminants was PCBs > DDTs > PBDEs > HCB. Mean concentration values of 8.42 ng/g w.w. were found for PCBs, 1.31 ng/g w.w. for DDTs, 0.29 ng/g w.w. for PBDEs and 0.19 ng/g w.w. for HCB. CYP1A-like protein was detected, for the first time, in whale shark skin samples. First data on the average density of microplastics in the superficial zooplankton/microplastic samples showed values ranging from 0.00 items/m3 to 0.14 items/m3. A focused PCA analysis was performed to evaluate a possible correlation among the size of the whale sharks, contaminants and CYP1A reponses. Further ecotoxicological investigation on whale shark skin biopsies will be carried out for a worldwide ecotoxicological risk assessment of this endangerd species. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
Castro-Jiménez J, Barhoumi B, Paluselli A, Tedetti M, Jiménez B., Muñoz-Arnanz J, Wortham H, Driss M.R, Sempéré R.
Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 51, nº 22, pags. 13180 - 13189 (2017)
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A comparative study for 62 toxic chemicals based on the simultaneous monthly collection of aerosol samples during 2015-2016 in two coastal cities at both the African (Bizerte, Tunisia) and European (Marseille, France) edges of the Western Mediterranean basin is presented. Legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ18PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (Σ17PCDD/Fs) show generally higher median levels at the African edge (2.1 and 0.2 pg m-3, respectively) compared to the European coastal site (1.0 and 0.08 pg m-3, respectively). Contrarily, the emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers' (Σ27PBDEs) median concentrations were higher in Marseille (∼9.0 pg m-3) compared to Bizerte (∼6.0 pg m-3). Different past usages and current emission patterns were found at both edges of the Western Mediterranean, most probably linked to the respective different regulatory frameworks for toxic chemicals. Our results indicate that the total organic carbon (TOC) and/ or the elemental carbon (EC) contents in the atmospheric aerosol may have a stronger effect than the total suspended particle (TSP) content as a whole on the spatial-temporal variability and the long-range atmospheric transport potential of the studied POPs. A jumping of the PBDE local atmospheric stocks from the Northwestern European Mediterranean edge to the Northwestern African coast seems to be possible under favorable conditions at present. While a higher PBDE median loading is estimated for the Marseille area (∼550 ng m-2 y-1) compared to Bizerte (∼400 ng m-2 y-1), the median PCB and PCDD/F dry deposition fluxes were higher at the African site, resulting in a 3-fold higher toxic equivalent (TEQ) loading of dioxin-like pollutants (400 pg TEQ m-2 y-1) compared to Marseille (∼140 pg TEQ m-2 y-1), with potential implications for aquatic organisms. However, the inhalation exposure assessment points to a minimum risk for human health at both sites. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
Casal P, Zhang Y, Martin J.W, Pizarro M, Jiménez B., Dachs J.
Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 51, nº 15, pags. 8460 - 8470 (2017)
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Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station. The concentrations of 14 ionizable PFAS (-PFAS) in freshly deposited snow (760-3600 pg L -1 ) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those in background surface snow (82-430 pg L -1 ). -PFAS ranged from 94 to 420 pg L -1 in seawater and from 3.1 to 16 ng g dw -1 in plankton. Ratios of individual PFAS concentrations in freshly deposited snow relative to surface snow (C SD /C Snow ), snowmelt (C SD /C SM ), and seawater (C SD /C SW ) were close to 1 (from 0.44 to 1.4) for all perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomers, suggesting that snowfall does not contribute significantly to PFOS in seawater. Conversely, these ratios for PFCAs ranged from 1 to 33 and were positively correlated with the number of carbons in the PFCA alkylated chain. These trends suggest that snow deposition, scavenging sea-salt aerosol bound PFAS, plays a role as a significant input of PFCAs to the Maritime Antarctica. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
Roscales J.L, Vicente A, Ramos L., Jiménez B.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 409, nº 20, pags. 4905 - 4913 (2017)
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A simplified, miniaturised matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-based method allowing the simultaneous extraction and purification of contaminants belonging to selected families of regulated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and penta- to octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and related contaminants of emerging concern, such as deca-BDE and Dechlorane Plus (DP), has been proposed. Wild bird eggs were used as biotic fat-containing model matrices. Once optimised, the procedure allowed sample preparation to be accomplished within 30 min, in a single step, and with minimal sample and reagent consumption and waste generation. These features contributed to speeding up and greening the analytical process as compared to the large-scale multistep procedures for these types of analyses. The method was combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) for PCB and OCP analysis and with GC-negative ion chemical ionisation-quadrupole mass spectrometry (NCI-qMS) for PBDE and DP determination. The complete analytical method provided satisfactory recoveries of the target compounds (above 83\% for all analytes, except for PBDE 209, 63\%), although as small an amount of sample as 0.300 g was used. The repeatability of the complete procedure was less than 16\% (with the only exception for PCB 153, which looked to be affected by an interference). The limits of detection were in all cases lower than 34 pg g−1 dry weight (as calculated for real samples), demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed procedure for accurate determination of the target compounds in biological samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of the target POPs in unhatched eggs of wild bird species. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Roscales J.L, Vicente A, Muñoz-Arnanz J, Morales L, Abad E, Aguirre J.I, Jiménez B.
Environmental Pollution, vol. 212, pags. 307 - 315 (2016)
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The impact of pollution caused by severe anthropogenic pressure in the Mediterranean Sea, an important biodiversity hotspot, requires continuous research efforts. Sources of highly toxic chemicals such as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are misunderstood in representative Mediterranean species, which limits our capability to establish proper conservation strategies. In the present study, eggs of Audouin's and yellow-legged gulls (Larus audouinii and L. michahellis) were used to investigate the trophic sources, as measured by δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S, of legacy POPs, in particular, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs), as well as recently-regulated POPs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Special attention was paid to the usefulness of rarely-explored δ34S ratios in explaining POP exposure in wildlife, and δ34S was the isotopic ratio that best explained POP variations among gulls in most cases, thus demonstrating its usefulness for understanding POP exposure in wildlife. Significant relationships between stable isotope signatures and POP concentrations revealed increasing levels of no-PCBs and low halogenated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in Mediterranean gulls as the consumption of marine resources increases. In contrast, highly chlorinated and brominated congeners appeared to preferentially accumulate in gulls feeding primarily on refuse from dump sites and terrestrial food webs. The use of suitable dietary tracers in the study of POPs in yellow-legged gulls revealed the importance of dump sites as a source of POPs in Mediterranean seabirds, which has not previously been reported. In contrast, the preferential accumulation through marine food webs of low chlorinated PCCD/Fs and no-PCBs, which show the highest toxic equivalents factors (TEFs), led to a significantly greater toxicological concern in Audouin's as compared to yellow-legged gulls. Audouin's gull exposure to POPs appears primarily related to the pelagic food webs commonly exploited by fisheries, highlighting the need for further research given the potential impact on human consumption. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.